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 09-October -2012

(8th & 9th October, 2012)


Background Material of Ministry of Railways



Indian Railways is the prime mover and plays a pivotal role in the transport scenario of the nation. Spread over the length and breadth of the country, it continues to integrate the nation as well. Over a national network of 64,000 route kilometers, Indian Railways is presently moving on an average 2 million tonnes of freight and 23 million passengers daily. It is the single largest employer in the country having about 14 lakh employees and is one of the largest railway systems in the world under a single management.



The total approximate earnings of Indian Railways on originating basis during first six months of the financial year 2012-13 i.e. from 1st April to 30th September 2012 were Rs. 58649.83 crore compared to Rs. 48963.19 crore during the same period last year, registering an increase of 19.78 per cent. The total goods earnings have gone up from Rs. 32425.41 crore during 1st April to 30th September 2011 to Rs. 40303.85 crore during 1st April – 30th September 2012, registering an increase of 24.30 per cent. The total passenger revenue earnings during first six months of the financial year 2012-13 were Rs. 15581.44 crore compared to Rs. 14017.76 crore during the same period last year, registering an increase of 11.15 per cent. The revenue earnings from other coaching amounted to Rs. 1510.38 crore during 1st April to 30th September 2012 compared to Rs. 1377.58 crore during the same period last year, an increase of 9.64 per cent.

The total approximate numbers of passengers booked during 1st April to 30th September 2012 were 4274.87 million compared to 4121.99 million during the same period last year, showing an increase of 3.71 per cent.



Indian Railways have carried 969.78 million tonnes of revenue earning freight loading during 2011-12 as against 921.51 million tonnes during 2010-11, registering a growth of 5.24 per cent.  Indian Railways loaded approx. 455.80 million tonnes of Coal, 104.71 million tonnes of Iron Ore, 107.57 million tonnes of Cement, 52.79 million tonnes of Fertilizer, 45.56 million tonnes of Foodgrains, 41.09 million tonnes of POL, 34.86 million tonnes of Pig Iron and Finished Steel, 38.58 million tonnes of Container traffic, 14.48 million tonnes of Raw material to steel plants except Iron Ore and 74.34 million tonnes of other goods in the year of 2011-12.



The target of traffic earnings for 2012-13 envisaged in Budget Estimates at Rs.1,32,502 crore, implying a growth of 27.2% over 2011-12. This was based on a loading target of 1025 million tonnes of freight and 8741 million numbers of originating passengers.  This also included rationalization of fare and freight structure proposed in Budget, 2012-13. In 2012-13, the Ordinary Working Expenses have been budgeted at Rs.84,400 crore., i.e., 13.2% more than previous year’s actuals. Upto August’12, the expenditure incurred is Rs.35,235 crore. The targeted Operating Ratio for 2012-13 as envisaged in Budget Estimates is 84.9%. The internal resource generation is targeted at Rs.25,117 crore. in 2012-13.  If the growth in core sectors is as per the projections made by the ministries handling core commodities like coal, Iron ore etc, it would be possible to generate the projected resources. At the end of 2012-13, the balances in the Funds have been budgeted at Rs.5,744 crore.



            The Western Dedicated Freight Corridor (DFC) of 1499 kms. will be from Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNPT) in Mumbai to Tughlakabad and Dadri near Delhi and would cater largely to the container transport requirements between the existing and emerging ports in western India and the northern hinterland.  The Eastern DFC will be from Ludhiana in Punjab to Dankuni (1839 kms.) near Kolkata to be extended in future to serve the new deep sea port proposed in Kolkata area and will largely serve coal and steel traffic. The two corridors will be joined together by a connector corridor between Khurja and Dadri. The DFC project is being implemented by the Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India Limited (DFCCIL), a Special Purpose Vehicle created in October 2006.  Durgawati-Karwandia section (66 kms) of Eastern DFC is targeted for commissioning in December 2013.  Construction work of formation and bridges is in progress and 85% work has been completed till September 2012. Contract for Track Work has been awarded in July 2012.  Pre-qualification for systems contract has been finalised and the Bid document is under finalisation.  Construction work of 54 major and important bridges of Western DFC is in progress and 5 major bridges have been completed. Land acquisition is progressing well and as on 31.7.2012 out of total land of 10703 hectares to be acquired for Eastern and Western DFC, Award under section 20 F of RAA 2008 has been declared for 7557 hectares (70%).Target for commissioning of  Eastern & Western DFC is March, 2017 except for the following sections: Durgawati-Karwandia, 66 km section of Mughalsarai-Sonnagar – December, 2013. Balance 52 km section of Sonnagar-Mughalsarai – December, 2015



            Indian Railways achieved the best ever production of locomotives in 2011-12.  During the year, 284 Diesel locomotives and 298 Electric locomotives were manufactured. A higher target of 330 Diesel locomotives and 300 Electric locomotives has been fixed for 2012-13 which is likely to be achieved. During the year 2011-12, 3637 coaches were manufactured.  These include coaches for Kolkata Metro, suburban services for metropolitan cities, DMUs for Kashmir, main line coaches and LHB type coaches with superior safety and amenity features.  Integral Coach Factory/ Chennai has completed a prestigious export order of 120 DMU cars for Sri Lanka which was executed through RITES.  Rail Coach Factory/Kapurthala has started manufacture of non air-conditioned coaches on the new LHB platform. During 2012-13 a production target of 4000 coaches has been fixed. The wagon production also peaked to a record high of 18357 during 2011-12. Rail Coach Factory/Rae Bareli has commenced its manufacturing activities. This factory is manufacturing superior LHB type coaches which will help Indian Railways to mitigate coach shortage.  It has manufactured 37 coaches up to September’ 2012 by sourcing coach shells from Rail Coach Factory/Kapurthala.



            The Mumbai Elevated Rail Corridor project will be 63-km Broad Gauge double line from Oval Maidan/Churchgate to Virar having 26 stations. The corridor will be 8.5 kms underground, 42.72 kms elevated and 12.51 kms at grade and will cost Rs 20,000 crore. The proposal is to run air-conditioned EMU trains at a frequency of 1.5 minutes with peak- hour passenger-carrying capacity of 90,000. The project has been planned for implementation through PPP mode under Design, Build, Finance, Operate & Transfer (DBFOT) model. Request for Qualification for the project has been published. The project is anticipated to be awarded by March, 2013.



Indigenously designed, developed and manufactured Air conditioned double decker train was introduced for the first time between Howrah and Dhanbad. Now an improved design has been developed and such services between Jaipur and Delhi has been introduced. Such services are also planned between Habibganj-Indore and Chennai-Bangalore in near future. AC double decker train with improved passenger friendly design is having capacity of 120 passengers per coach.



            Indian Railways has identified seven corridors for conducting prefeasibility studies for High Speed Rail Corridors. These are; (i) Consultancy for Pre-feasibility study for Pune – Mumbai – Ahmedabad – 650 km - Study Completed, the Final Report by the Consultant has been submitted to Ministry of Railways in April, 2010, (ii) Consultancy for Pre-feasibility study for Delhi – Agra - Lucknow-Varanasi-Patna – 991 km - The study has been completed and the Consultant has submitted Draft Final Report to Ministry.  (iii) Consultancy for Pre-feasibility study for Howrah –Haldia – 135 km –The study has been completed and the Consultant has submitted Final Report to Ministry on 31.07.2012.  (iv) Consultancy for Pre-feasibility study for Hyderabad-Dornakal-Vijayawada-Chennai – 664 km - The study is in progress. The Consultant has submitted Inception Report, Interim Report I & II and Draft Final Report. These reports are under scrutiny. (v) Consultancy for Pre-feasibility study for Chennai – Bangalore – Coimbatore – Ernakulam - Thiruvananthapuram – 850 km - The study is in progress, Consultant has submitted Inception Report and Interim Report No.1 to Ministry. (vi) Consultancy for prefeasibility study for Delhi-Jaipur-Ajmer-Jodhpur– 591 km – The proposal for invitation of tender to engage the consultant is under finalization. (vii) Consultancy for Pre-feasibility study for Delhi– Chandigarh-Amritsar – 450 km - The proposal for re-invitation of tender is under finalization.



            In a major thrust in enhancing safety, Train Protection & Warning System (TPWS)is being provided on Indian Railways’ Automatic Signalling sections & High Density Routes as a first step. As a pilot project, TPWS has been provided on Chennai-Gummidipundi Suburban Section of Southern Railway (50 Route kilometres) which has been commissioned in May 2008. For Main line operations, another pilot project on Hazrat Nizamuddin – Agra Section of Northern/North Central Railway (200 Route Kilometres, is under progress. Track side work has been completed on the entire section & 35 locos have been fitted with Onboard TPWS equipment. Commercial trials are being conducted on nominated trains.  TPWS is also being provided on Dum Dum-New Garia section of Kolkata Metro (25 Route Kilometres) where the track side and onboard installation work is presently in progress. Anti Collision Device (ACD) developed by Konkan Railway Corporation Limited (KRCL) has been provided as a pilot project on Northeast Frontier Railway (1736 Route kilometres). Operation and technical problems noticed in Southern Railway trials are being looked into and new ACD version-II after successful validation and certification will be deployed on Northeast Frontier Railway.  Further, proliferation of ACD shall be possible only after these problems are resolved comprehensively by KRCL. Based upon experience gained from ACD & TPWS systems, Indian Railways has now taken up development of TCAS. TCAS shall be a fusion of functionalities of TPWS & ACD and shall prevent Signal Passing at Danger as well as Collisions. After invitation of Expression of Interest, six Indian firms have been shortlisted. One of the firm has developed the Prototype which shall undergo field trials in Oct’2012 over South Central Railway.



            For enhancing efficiency & safety of train operations, GSM(R) based Mobile Train Radio Communication system for communication among train Driver, Guard, Station Master, Control Office & field maintenance staff during run of the train has been commissioned on 1725 RKms and work is in progress in     1000 RKMs which is expected to be commissioned shortly. Signalling has to play a very vital role for network expansion, capacity creation and zero tolerance for accidents. Advanced technologies in Signalling, high quality training to improve skills and managing new technologies and deployment of predictive / diagnostic tools for minimizing failures and Mean Time to Repair (MTTR) has been planned.   Centralized operation of points & signals along with Block Proving by Axle Counters and Continuous Track Circuiting shall be progressively deployed on entire IR. Safety shall be further improved by provision of On Board Train Protection system. Capacity augmentation is planned by provision of Intermediate Block Signals, Automatic Block Signalling and Centralized Operation & Control Centre.



Intensive Mechanized cleaning of coaches in the coaching depots through professional agencies is being carried out. Heavy duty machines such as high pressure jet cleaners, floor scrubbers, vacuum suction cleaners etc. are deployed for the purpose. Presently a total of 115depots have been identified for this work and this has already been implemented in 89 coaching depots on different Zonal Railways. On Board Housekeeping Scheme (OBHS) has been prescribed in all Rajdhani, Shatabdi, Duronto & other important long distance Mail/Express trains for frequent cleaning of coach toilets, doorways, aisles & passenger compartments during the run of the trains. A total of 535 trains have been identified for providing OBHS services. This scheme has been implemented on about 335 pairs of trains. Clean Train Station scheme has been prescribed for limited mechanized cleaning attention to identified trains during their scheduled stoppages enroute at nominated “Clean Train Stations” with focus on cleaning and disinfecting of toilets, doorways and aisles. 30 Clean Train Stations have been nominated by Railway Board on different Zonal Railways. 28 of these have been commissioned and are functional. Fifty locations have been identified to set up Mechanized laundries for improving the quality of washing of bed rolls. While 29 locations shall be managed departmentally, 21 are being outsourced. Mechanized laundries have already been set up at 16 locations. Contracts for setting up laundries at 7 locations are in advanced stage and tender are under process at 12 locations. The contract for pest and rodent control in coaches is already in place in 125 coaching depots out of 127 identified coaching depots on IR. To improve effectiveness of the pest and rodent control, measures are being regularly reviewed. Major constraint is vulnerability of coaches for entry of pest and rodents at coaching depots, station yards etc. Indian Railways introduces new passenger friendly amenities.  Facility of Modern Luggage Trolleys has been introduced as a pilot project for senior citizens and women passengers.  These trolleys are operated through ‘Rail Yatri Sevaks’. Battery operated vehicles at railway stations for disabled, old age and sick passengers.  This facility is to be provided through Commercial Publicity route with no charge to be levied either from the passenger or from the Railway. 



            With a commitment to provide hygienic environment to its passengers and staff, Indian Railways, along with Defence Research & Development Organization (DRDO) have developed Environment Friendly Bio-toilets for its passenger coaches. In these bio-toilets, the human waste is treated by bacteria, which is benign to the humans.  This bacteria converts human waste into water and gases (methane and CO2). The gases escape to atmosphere and treated waste water is discharged after chlorination. Human waste thus does not fall on the tracks. Eight trains are running with 436 bio-toilets and in the year 2012-13, 2500 more bio-toilets are planned to be introduced. A complete switch-over to bio-toilets in new coaches has been planned by 2016-17 and the Indian Railway has targetted elimination of direct discharge passenger coach toilet systems by the end of the Thirteenth Five Year Plan i.e., 2021-22.



The scheme of Adarsh stations has been introduced from the year 2009.  Adarsh Stations are provided with basic facilities such as drinking water, adequate toilets, catering services, waiting rooms and dormitories especially for lady passengers, better signage, etc.  During 2010-11, 201 stations were identified to be developed under this scheme of which 36 stations were identified in October 2011.  Work at 82 stations has been completed.  Work at another 184 stations is targeted for completion in 2012-13.  A new concept of development of Multi Functional Complexes (MFCs) with budget hotels was introduced to provide rail users facilities like food  plaza, ATM, Variety Store, Books & Chemist shops, Parking etc.  So far, a total of 196 stations have been identified for MFCs.  The task of development of these MFCs has been assigned to Zonal Railways and construction of MFCs has been completed at 35 stations.



To provide accurate train running information to the public, the Indian Railways has expanded the train running information facility. Now the information on the running of all trains is available at Similarly this facility is available through SMS on 139.  To avail this SMS facility, Type SPOT<space><train number> and send it to 139

            SMS based enquiry regarding location of rake in Freight Operation Information System  has been started from 12.10.11 for customers. The customer is required to send the FNR-id of the rake as SMS to 57866. Internet facility in running trains is under implementation in three rakes of Howrah Rajdhani as pilot.  Based on the user feedback this facility may be extended to other important trains.



            Passenger Reservation System (PRS) is running at more than 2926 locations, and is handling more than 3,000 trains involving on an average, 5.42 crore passengers per month with average earning of Rs.2355.20 crore per month. The locations include non­-railhead centres like main cities of North East region, almost 90% of Districts, etc. Computerized reservation terminals have been expanded in remote stretches. In addition, the facility of I-ticket and e-ticket has been made available for all mail and express trains and more than 3,50,000 tickets are being issued everyday through the internet also. Unreserved Ticketing System (UTS) facility has been extended to more than 5485 locations where approximately 9950 UTS counters have been made functional.  It serves approx. 63.09 crore passengers / month earning revenue of Rs.1131.54 crore month. During the period Sept. ’11 to Sept.’12, UTS has been commissioned at 441 locations. ‘Mushkil Aasaan’ is the scheme to introduce mobile ticketing vans in both rural and urban areas for providing reserved tickets to the public.  Two such vans were commissioned at Kolkata and New Delhi in January 2010.  Further, 25 mobile vans were planned for introduction across 16 zonal railways. So far, 807 Automatic Ticket Vending Machines have been installed at 248 locations. Further approx. 1500 ATVMs are planned for procurement.  460 ATVMs were commissioned between September 2011 and September 2012.

            In order to improve accessibility of Tatkal tickets, the timing of opening of reservation of Tatkal tickets has been shifted to 10.00 hours on the previous day of journey instead of 08.00 hours, since 10.07.12.. Further, no authorized agents, including agents of Indian Railways Catering Tourism Corporation and RTSAs/RTAs are allowed to book Tatkal tickets from 10:00 hours to 12:00 hours. E-tickets can also be booked through the mobile phone by downloading software from IRCTC website to the mobile phone. Further since February 2012, passengers booking e-tickets need not take a print-out of the Electronic Reservation slip (ERS) and instead display authorized SMS sent by IRCTC containing all vital details on laptops/palmtops/mobile phones. They are also required to carry their valid photo-id in original. This is a passenger friendly and an eco-friendly measure. The Advance Reservation Period has been increased from 90 days to 120 days on an experimental basis (excluding the date of journey) w.e.f. 10.03.2012.



            As on 01.04.2012, 22224 Route Kilometers (RKM) have been electrified. This constitutes 34.48% of Indian Railways network, hauling about 2/3rd   freight and nearly half of passenger traffic. Electric traction being an energy efficient mode of traction, electrification has been contributing to savings towards expenditure and   precious diesel in a big way. To get the power supply at economical tariff, Indian Railways is setting up a captive power plant of 1000 MW capacity at Nabinagar, Bihar and plan to set up another Thermal Power Plant of  1320 MW at Adra,  in District Purulia West Bengal  in Joint Venture with NTPC. The Joint Venture Company named as “Bhartiya Rail Bijli Company Ltd” has been formed. Indian Railways plan for setting up one more gas based power plant of 700 MW capacity at Thakurli , Maharashtra.



            Indian Railway has initiated various measures to promote green energy. These measures includes use of renewable energy, energy conservation and adoption of three phase technology for utilization of regenerative braking on locomotives and electrical multiple units (EMU). Indian Railway commissioned its first wind mill plant of 10.5 MW capacity in the State of Tamilnadu in March, 2009 to meet the major load requirement of Integral Coach Factory (ICF), Perambur, Chennai.  So far about 3300 manned level crossing have been electrified using solar energy modules and  about 1500 solar water heater, 400 solar based street light & 5 hybrid solar/wind plants have been provided. Thus about 4.5 MWp capacity solar PV modules have been provided on Indian Railways as on March, 2011.



            More than 42,000 Route Kms of Optic Fibre Cable (OFC) has been laid on Indian Railway system alongside railway track for improving communications. Works for laying 10,000 Kilometres of OFC further are under progress. Optic Fibre network on Indian Railways has been utilised for meeting various needs such as Administrative Trunk Voice Communication, enhancement computer networks and other IT applications, etc. During Financial Year 2012-13, 920 Route kilometres, OFC Cable has been laid upto August 2012. The presence of optic fibre network in the remote areas has been instrumental in facilitating multi-service operators to provide TV, Video and Internet services to smaller towns.  Railway’s PSU RailTel has bagged the prestigious National Optic Fibres Network Project, costing Rs. 20,000/-crore.




PIB Aizawl

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